A language is a complex system of visual and/or auditory signs, each of which tends to refer univocally to as many meanings. Signs can relate to each other through a code, i.e. a set of common rules and characteristics that ensure their recognition and reference to meanings. Verbal languages are the most widespread, but there are many others. Among them there is the audiovisual language. Like any other language, the audiovisual language is made up of a set of signs that, related to each other through a system of rules, is used to communicate something to someone.
Works based on moving images always take on a narrative form, even when they have to inform or document. They use a language, the audiovisual one, constituted by the convergence and balance of a series of sectoral languages. This form of communication is currently the most widespread and powerful among those in circulation. It has given rise to countless works of the most diverse typology.
The film and television narration
The film and television works are based on a core that summarizes the essential elements on a narrative level: the story concept. From there the narrative materials that build the work are developed: the characters, the events and the setting. The configuration (point of view, tone, density) constitutes the set of modelling operations that the still raw narrative materials undergo in order to be made unified and coherent. The materials thus configured are dislocated according to an order and combinations (exposure, texture, progression, structure) that together make up the composition.
The framing: the shooting point
The cinetelevision frame is the set of frames or frames present between one cut and another. The fundamental parameters for making and/or analysing it refer to the spatial relationship between what is shot and the position of the camera at the moment of shooting. The shooting point is defined by five parameters: scaled size, angle, inclination, height, possible camera movement.
The framing: the image
The visual characteristics of the filmic image do not depend only on the shooting point, but also on the material properties of the shots (format, quality, scroll speed, unity, colouring, relief, variety of filmic resources used), the perspective relationships between the planes and the composition.
Staging is the set of those sectorial languages that cinema and television have in common with theatre: figurative rendering, staging or location choice (set design), costumes, make-up and hairstyle and acting. In cinema and television these aspects take on a very particular character compared to theatre, given the possibilities offered by filming and editing.
Between two shots there is always a more or less invisible passage between one shooting segment and another. In a film there are hundreds of different shots, and hundreds of shots. Editing is the language that is in charge of uniting the shots of a film in order to clarify the story (especially thanks to the respect of the rules of continuity), translate the narrative passages into the audiovisual language (especially with the editing schemes), give fluidity and rhythm to the work (editing and cutting), tie together the different scenes and sequences (with the connections).
The sound in the film and television work has various fundamental functions. It consists of the mixing of three sources: music, noises and voices.